Editors Notes:

This text was written from material prepared by the author for his lectures at the University of California, Los Angeles (U.C.L.A) in the Extension Course: “Buddhism in the Modern World”, winter quarter, 1997.

There are no diacritical marks in this edition because of the limitations of the publisher’s software.  Diacritical marks will be included for the Pali and Sanskrit in future editions.

In nearly all cases in the main sections of the book, all Buddhist terms, and terms relevant to the subject, are rendered in Pali. The exceptions for expressions in  Sanskrit are so noted.


This book is dedicated to my master,

Most Venerable Thich Ke Chau,

who died in Vietnam,

To my parents,

and to the observance of

human rights for my Vietnamese countrymen

and all people throughout the world


During the preparation of this book, my many friends, students and sangha members from different Buddhist traditions have helped with their encouragement, patience and contributions of technical materials and  ideas. Among those people, I wish to thank Jean Paone  and Don Farber of the “Thubten Dhargye Ling” Tibetan  Buddhist community for their support and work with the  U.C.L.A academic committee in creating the course, “Buddhism in the Modern World”, and for inviting me to  present my lectures; to Professor of Philosophy Pham Cong Thien for his diligent work in providing the Pali text  and references; to Dr. Ananda Guruge for his many hours  of scholarly guidance in improving the quality of the final  document; to Ven. Panditha Ahangama Dhammarama for  his moral support; to Ven. Pandit Paravahera  Pannananda for his suggestion for me to start on this  path; and, to my editor and sangha brother, Ven. Dr.  Thich An Hue for his sound interest in the subject, untiring  research and preparation of the manuscript – and for  writing an introduction to the book which gives the reader  some suggested depth and methods for applying the Four  Sublime States – in ways to help alleviate human  suffering.


Thank you readers for taking the time to research this meaningful book. To refer to more good and profound books about Buddhism. Please see the Ebook HT Thich Vien Ly!

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